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List of authors.Andre C. Kalil, M.D., M.P.H., Thomas F. Patterson, M.D., Aneesh K. Mehta, M.D., Kay M. Tomashek, M.D., M.P.H., Cameron R. Wolfe, M.B., B.S., M.P..H., Varduhi Ghazaryan, M.D., Vincent C. Marconi, M.D., Guillermo M. Ruiz-Palacquả táo, M.D., Lanny Hsieh, M.D., Susan Kline, M.D., Victor Tapson, M.D., Nicole M. Iovine, M.D., Ph.D., Mamta K. Jain, M.D., M.P.H., Daniel A. Sweeney, M.D., Hamãng cầu M. El Sahly, M.D., Angela R. Branđậy, M.D., Justino Regalabởi Pinedomain authority, M.D., David C. Lye, M.B., B.S., Uriel Sandkovsky, M.D., Anne F. Luetkemeyer, M.D., Stuart H. Cohen, M.D., Robert W. Finberg, M.D., Patrick E.H. Jackson, M.D., Babafemày Taiwo, M.B., B.S., Catharine I. Paules, M.D., Henry Arguinchona, M.D., Nathaniel Erdmann, M.D., Ph.D., Neera Ahuja, M.D., Maria Frank, M.D., Myoung-don Oh, M.D., Eu-Suk Kyên, M.D., Seow Y. Tan, M.B., B.S., Richard A. Mularski, M.D., M.S.H.S., Henrik Nielsen, M.D., Philip O. Ponce, M.D., Barbara S. Taylor, M.D., LuAnn Larson, R.N., B.S.N., Nadine G. Rouphael, M.D., Youssef Saklawi, M.D., Valeria D. Cantos, M.D., Emily R. Ko, M.D., Ph.D., John J. Engemann, M.D., Alpesh N. Amin, M.D., Miki Watanabe, M.D., Joanne Billings, M.D., M.P.H., Marie-Carmelle Elie, M.D., Richard T. Davey, M.D., Timothy H. Burgess, M.D., M.Phường.H., Jennifer Ferreira, Sc.M., Michelle Green, M.Phường.H., Mat Makowski, Ph.D., Anabela Cardoso, M.D., Stephanie de Bono, M.D., Ph.D., Tyler Bonnett, M.S., Michael Proschan, Ph.D., Gregory A. Deye, M.D., Walla Dempsey, Ph.D., Seema U. Nayak, M.D., Lori E. Dodd, Ph.D., và John H. Beigel, M.D.

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et al.,

A complete menu of members of the ACTT-2 Study Group is provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at



Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known.


We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) và either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time khổng lồ recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15.


A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned khổng lồ combination treatment & 518 lớn control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval , 6 lớn 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 khổng lồ 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 lớn 1.32; P=0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 lớn 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxyren or noninvasive sầu ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment & 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 lớn 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group và 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, −5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, −9.8 to lớn −0.3; P=0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, −5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, −8.7 lớn −1.9; P=0.003).


Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time và accelerating improvement in clinical status among mỏi patients with Covid-19, notably aao ước those receiving high-flow oxygene or noninvasive sầu ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy và Infectious Diseases; number, NCT04401579.)


VISUAL ABSTRACTBaricitinib + Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19

In May 20trăng tròn, the first stage of the Adaptive sầu Covid-19 Treatment Trial (ACTT-1), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, showed that remdesivir is an effective treatment for hospitalized adult patients with coronavi khuẩn disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia.1 Despite the benefits of remdesivir, substantial morbidity and mortality due lớn Covid-19 remain. Emerging data suggest that disease severity may be due in part lớn a dysregulated inflammatory response.2 It is postulated that mitigating the immune response and preventing a hyperinflammatory state may further improve clinical outcomes. Baricitinib, an orally administered, selective inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 và 2, was predicted with the use of artificial intelligence algorithms to be a potential therapeutic against severe adễ thương respiratory syndrome coronavi khuẩn 2 (SARS-CoV-2).3,4 Baricitinib inhibits the intracellular signaling pathway of cytokines known khổng lồ be elevated in severe Covid-19, including interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; acts against SARS-CoV-2 through the impairment of AP2-associated protein kinase 1 & the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry and infectivity; and improves lymphocyte counts in patients with Covid-19.3,5-8 In three case series of patients with Covid-19, baricitinib treatment was associated with both an improvement in oxygenation và a reduction in select inflammatory markers.9-11 Randomized, controlled trials are needed to further understand the role of immunomodulation in patients with Covid-19.12 After the successful completion of ACTT-1, we designed the next iteration of ACTT (ACTT-2) lớn evaluate whether the combination of baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to lớn remdesivir alone.



The ACTT-2 protocol was designed and written by a working group of the ACTT investigators and the sponsor (the National Institute of Allergy và Infectious Diseases), with input from the manufacturer of baricitinib, Eli Lilly. Investigators và staff at participating sites gathered the data, which were then analyzed by statisticians at the statistical & data center (Emmes) & the sponsor. The authors wrote the manuscript, và, on behalf of the ACTT-2 Study Group, vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the data and for the fidelity of the trial khổng lồ the protocol.

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Enrollment inlớn this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial began on May 8, 2020, & ended on July 1, 20trăng tròn. There were 67 trial sites in 8 countries: the United States (55 sites), Singapore (4), South Korea (2), Mexico (2), Japan (1), Spain (1), the United Kingdom (1), và Denmark (1). Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio khổng lồ receive either remdesivir & baricitinib or remdesivir & placebo. Randomization was stratified according to trial site and disease severity at enrollment (see the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at Patients received remdesivir intravenously as a 200-mg loading dose on day 1, followed by a 100-mg maintenance dose administered daily on days 2 through 10 or until hospital discharge or death. Baricitinib was administered as a 4-mg daily dose (either orally or through a nasogastric tube) for 14 days or until hospital discharge. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 ml per minute received baricitinib at a dose of 2 mg once daily. A matching oral placebo was administered according to the same schedule as the active drug. All the patients received standard supportive sầu care at the trial site hospital. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis was recommended for all the patients without a major contraindication. If a hospital had a written policy for Covid-19 treatments, patients could receive sầu those treatments. In the absence of a written policy, other experimental treatment & off-label use of marketed medications intended as specific treatment for Covid-19 were prohibited. This included glucocorticoids, which were permitted only for standard indications such as adrenal insufficiency, asthma exacerbation, laryngeal edema, septic shoông xã, và axinh tươi respiratory distress syndrome.

The trial protocol was approved by the institutional Review board at each site (or a centralized institutional Review board as applicable) và was overseen by an independent data & safety monitoring board. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient or from the patient’s legally authorized representative if the patient was unable to lớn provide consent. Full details of the trial thiết kế, conduct, oversight, và analyses are provided in the protocol & statistical analysis plan (available at


All patients were evaluated daily during their hospitalization, from day 1 through day 29. (See the full mô tả tìm kiếm of procedures in the Supplementary Appendix.) The trial team was unaware of the trial-group assignments until after all data queries were resolved and the database was locked. The first draft of the manuscript was written by the first author, và then all the authors contributed to lớn the subsequent versions. No one who is not an author contributed to lớn the writing of the manuscript.

Outcomes & Statistical Analysis

The primary outcome measure was the time to lớn recovery, with the day of recovery defined as the first day, during the 28 days after enrollment, on which a patient attained category 1, 2, or 3 on the eight-category ordinal scale. The competing event of death was handled in a manner similar lớn the Fine–Gray competing-risk approach.13 The categories are the same as those used in ACTT-11 & are listed in Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix. The primary analysis was a stratified log-rank chạy thử of the time khổng lồ recovery with remdesivir plus baricitinib as compared with remdesivir plus placebo, stratified according khổng lồ baseline disease severity (i.e., score on the ordinal scale of 4 or 5 vs. 6 or 7 at enrollment).

The key secondary outcome measure was clinical status at day 15, based on the eight-category ordinal scale. Other secondary outcome measures included the time khổng lồ improvement by one or two categories from the ordinal score at baseline; clinical status, as assessed on the ordinal scale at days 3, 5, 8, 11, 15, 22, and 29; mean change in the ordinal score from day 1 khổng lồ days 3, 5, 8, 11, 15, 22, and 29; time to discharge or lớn a National Early Warning Score of 2 or less (on a scale from 0 khổng lồ trăng tròn, with higher scores indicating greater clinical risk) that was maintained for 24 hours, whichever occurred first; change in the National Early Warning Score from day 1 to days 3, 5, 8, 11, 15, 22, and 29; number of days of receipt of supplemental oxygene, noninvasive sầu ventilation or high-flow oxygen, & invasive sầu ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) up lớn day 29 (if these were being used at baseline); the incidence và duration of new use of oxygene, new use of noninvasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen, & new use of invasive ventilation or ECMO; duration of hospitalization up to lớn day 29 (patients who remained hospitalized at day 29 had a value of 28 days); và mortality at 14 & 28 days after enrollment. Secondary safety outcomes included grade 3 và 4 adverse events & serious adverse events that occurred through day 29, discontinuation or temporary suspension of trial-product administration for any reason, & changes in assessed laboratory values over time. There was a single primary hypothesis test. For secondary outcomes, no adjustments for multiplithành phố were made.

Prespecified subgroups were defined according to lớn sex, disease severity (as defined for stratification và by an ordinal score of 4, 5, 6, và 7 at enrollment), age (18 to 39 years, 40 khổng lồ 64 years, or ≥65 years), race, ethnic group, duration of symptoms before randomization (measured as ≤10 days or >10 days, in quartiles, and as the median), site location, & presence of coexisting conditions.